IMMUNITY HISTORY AND CLASSIFICATIONS
The prehistoric view of disease was that supernatural forces caused it, and that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for “bad deeds” or “evil thoughts” visited upon the soul by the gods or by one’s enemies.
Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the scientific methods were laid, diseases were attributed to an alteration or imbalance in one of the three humors (blood, phlegm & bile). Also popular during this time before learning that communicable diseases came from germs/microbes was the miasma theory, which held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Plague were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of “bad air If someone were exposed to the miasma in a swamp, in the evening air, or breathing air in a sickroom or hospital ward, they could get a disease.
With Louis Pasteur‘s germ theory of disease, the fledgling science of immunology began to explain how bacteria caused disease, and how, following infection, the human body gained the ability to resist further infections[
In 1798, Edward Jenner introduced the far safer method of deliberate infection with cowpox virus, (smallpox vaccine), which caused a mild infection that also induced immunity to smallpox. By 1800 the procedure was referred to as vaccination. To avoid confusion, smallpox inoculation was increasingly referred to as variolation. The success and general acceptance of Jenner’s procedure would later drive the general nature of vaccination developed by Pasteur and others towards the end of the 19th century In 1891, Pasteur widened the definition of the vaccine in honor of Jenner and it then became essential to qualify the term, by referring to the polio vaccine, measles vaccine, etc.
the first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease-causing organism is probably A Treatise on Smallpox and Measles 1848 in the 9th century describes the clinical presentation of smallpox and measles and goes on to indicate that exposure to these specific agents confers lasting immunity The first scientist who developed a full theory of immunity was Ilya Mechnikov after he revealed phagocytosis in 1882.
immunity refers to the ability of the human body to resist diseases caused by microorganisms. IMMUNE BOOSTERS SUPPORT THE PROCESS.
Immunity is a complex human system that has the capacity to recognize and tolerate whatever belongs to the self and to recognize and reject what is foreign (non-self).
Immunity is mainly classified as follows:
Everybody is born with natural active immunity to prevent any infection in a normal healthy situation.
When any antigen (toxins released by disease-causing organisms) enters the body antibodies are created in the body naturally to fight against (inactivate) such antigens thereby prevents infection. IMMUNE BOOSTER SUPPLEMENTS / VITAMINS are very much necessary in day-to-day life.
- Adaptive has subclassifications such as
- Natural -Passive such as antibodies received thru mother’s milk.
- Artificial-active such as vaccination
- Artificial passive: injecting antibodies (developed from others)